"…mais ce serait peut-être l'une des plus grandes opportunités manquées de notre époque si le logiciel libre ne libérait rien d'autre que du code…"

Mono : C#, IKVM, Java, Ironpython, Boo, OLPC, Silverlight/Moonlight, etc…

Posted by patrick sur janvier 11, 2008

Mono est encore bien méconnu aussi voici quelques liens intéressants pour en savoir plus:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mono_(software) (« Mono is a project led by Novell (formerly by Ximian) to create an Ecma standard compliant .NETC# compiler and a Common Language Runtime. Mono can be run on Linux, BSD, UNIX, Mac OS X, Solaris and Windows operating systems…Mono’s current version is 1.2.6 (as of Dec 12, 2007). This version provides the core API of the .NET Framework as well as partial support for C# 2.0 and Visual Basic.NET and some C# 3.0 support« )

http://www.mono-project.com/Main_Page (« Le site du projet Mono. Mono provides the necessary software to develop and run .NET client and server applications on Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X, Windows, and Unix. Sponsored by Novell (http://www.novell.com), the Mono open source project has an active and enthusiastic contributing community and is positioned to become the leading choice for development of Linux applicationsFeatures

http://www.mono-project.com/Moma (« The Mono Migration Analyzer (MoMA) tool helps you identify issues you may have when porting your .Net application to Mono. It helps pinpoint platform specific calls (P/Invoke) and areas that are not yet supported by the Mono project. While MoMA can help show potential issues, there are many complex factors that cannot be covered by a simple tool. MoMA may fail to point out areas that will cause problems, and may point out areas which will not actually be an issue. »)

http://www.mono-project.com/Languages (« Multiple languages can be used with the Mono platform. The Mono project provides some compilers (C#, Basic, JScript) and there are both open source and commercial compilers that can be used with Mono…Mono-compatible compilers

  • C#: The main C# compiler of the Mono Project is mcs. We also have gmcs, which includes previews of several new C# features, including generics and nullable types. In the future, ‘gmcs’ will become the default compiler.
  • Java: Java applications can run in Mono, see the Java page for more details.
  • Boo: The Boo (http://boo.codehaus.org/Home) language is a scripting language similar to Python designed for the .NET Framework. For details on the particular language features see the Boo Language Features (http://boo.codehaus.org/Language+Features) page.
  • Python There are two possible choices here: PythonNet and IronPython.
    • PythonNet: Brian Lloyd (mailto:brian@No.Spam.zope.com) wrote a bridge to link the Python runtime with the .NET runtime. More information on the PS.NET project can be found here (http://pythonnet.sourceforge.net/). This uses the real Python engine and provides a bridge between the Python world and the .NET world to interoperate.
    • IronPython: is Jim Hugunin’s compiler for Python, it is a complete implementation of Python from scratch that compiles Python code into native CIL. More information is available on the IronPython site
  • GCC: In 2006, the Gcc4cil project was publicly announced. For now it supports the C language but it could be extended to support more gcc front ends..
  • Ruby Ruby.Net (http://www.plas.fit.qut.edu.au/rubynet/) from Queensland University. The compiler can be used to statically compile a Ruby source file into a verifiable .NET v2.0 assembly or it can be used to directly execute a Ruby source file (compile, load and execute). IronRuby (http://www.wilcob.com/Wilco/IronRuby.aspx) from Wilco Bauwer, includes an interactive Ruby Console and works with Mono.
  • …etc »)

http://www.mono-project.com/Java (« Mono is able to run Java code side-by-side with .NET as well as having Java and .NET object interoperate with each other. This is done with IKVM (http://www.ikvm.net) the Java VM implementation that runs on top of .NET and Mono. IKVM was developed by Jeroen Frijters for the .NET Framework. Zoltan Varga ported it to Mono and fixed the Mono runtime to support the features required by IKVM. The class library runtime for IKVM is the GNU Classpath which is rapidly advancing but not entirely complete. IKVM is fully supported by Mono and its part of the standard Mono package distribution. As it stands today, it is able to run popular applications like Eclipse and DerbyThere are two possible ways of using IKVM: one is to use it as a Just-in-Time compiler which translates the Java bytecodes into .NET Intermediate Language as it goes. But this means that at runtime you are compiling things twice: the Java-to-CIL JIT and the CIL-to-Native JITExposing .NET Libraries to Java Now, Gtk# is a .NET assembly (this is the ECMA lingo for « library »), and Java does not know anything about this. It is necessary first to generate some stubs for these classes to let the Java compiler knows about the types defined in the C# world. This is done using the netexp.exe program from IKVM, like this:

$ mono netexp.exe /mono/lib/mscorlib.dll
$mono netexp.exe /mono/lib/mono/gtk-sharp/gtk-sharp.dll
$ mono netexp.exe  /mono/lib/mono/gtk-sharp/glib-sharp.dll
$ mono netexp.exe /mono/lib/mono/gtk-sharp/atk-sharp.dll

The above commands basically « imports » all of the types and their definitions into something suitable for Java to consume, the result is:

$ ls *.jar
atk-sharp.jar  glib-sharp.jar  gtk-sharp.jar  mscorlib.jar

The netexp.exe program will import all of the types into the « cli » namespace. So if you had a class called « Gtk.Window », it will be exposed to Java as « cli.Gtk.Window »…How Complete is Mono/IKVM ? Mono and IKVM depend on the GNU Classpath, so it is as complete as open source Java, but you get the added advantage of accessing any Mono/.NET libraries as well. Today Mono/IKVM can run large applications like Eclipse, Jython and JBoss. Screenshot of Eclipse running on Mono . »)

http://tirania.org/blog/texts/gtkjava.html (« So today I figured it would be an interesting excercise to write a small Gtk# application with Java. To do this, I used IKVM the Java VM implementation that runs on top of .NET and Mono. There are two possible ways of using IKVM: one is to use it as a Just-in-Time compiler which translates the Java bytecodes into .NET Intermediate Language as it goes. But this means that at runtime you are compiling things twice: the Java-to-CIL JIT and the CIL-to-Native JIT. Gtk# is really a bad name. Because Gtk# is not limited to C#, any programming language in the .NET framework can use it today and because it covers more than only the Gtk API, it covers various other components of the GNOME Development Platform.« )

http://www.mono-project.com/Companies_Using_Mono

  • Novell (http://www.novell.com): Novell uses Mono for both client and server applications:
  • Otee (http://www.otee.dk): Their Unity 3D game modeling tool uses Mono so customers can build cross-platform video games. Their engineers have also spoken about their Mono use on the Mono mailing list. Read the Otee success story here.
  • Medsphere (http://medsphere.com): The Medsphere OpenVista software allows physicians to access complete patient health information at the point of care, and it runs on both Windows and Linux, thanks to Mono. Medsphere customers now have the flexibility to choose the OS that is right for them, without worrying about application availability.
  • Quantifi Solutions: (http://quantifisolutions.com) Specialists in complex financial instruments, Quantifi Solutions use Mono to mix C# and C++ code in their finance modeling software. Their financial models are refined constantly, so they need code that is easy to manage and easy to maintain, while still running fast enough to keep up with the markets. One of the Quantifi engineers discusses their implementation here in the mailing list archives
  • Versora : Windows-to-Linux migration specialists Versora used Mono and C# to produce a cross-platform tool that helps companies move system and application setttings and user data. Read their success story here.
  • Mainsoft uses Mono for their Grasshopper product which allows ASP.NET applications to be deployed on J2EE servers.
  • Gaia (http://ajaxwidgets.com) a company that offers Ajax-based ASP.NET controls under a dual-licensing scheme: GPL or proprietary. Learn more from them here .
  • Wikipedia (http://wikipedia.org): WikiPedia uses Mono for its search facilities. The indexing and the actual searching is done by Mono-based applications.

http://tirania.org/blog/archive/2008/Jan-04.html (« Les motivation de Miguel De Icaza pour développer mono et silverlight:…I have been using Linux as my main desktop operating system since 1992 and endured every missing feature, every broken driver, every broken X setup and every missing application since I started. I did so because it was free software, and I had decided that I wanted to run my entire system with free software. I felt that dog fooding Linux and improving Linux on a day-to-day basis would help improve this OS as opposed to improving a proprietary OS…From my perspective, it is crucial for Linux to have good support for Silverlight because I do not want Linux on the desktop to become a second class citizen ever again. Robert, you are asking those of us that use FOSS operating systems to « take one for the team » by not endorsing Silverlight, but yet, you are not willing to live among us. If you are going to preach, preach by exampleThe core of the debate is whether Microsoft will succeed in establishing Silverlight as a RIA platform or not. You believe that without Moonlight they would not have a chance of success, and I believe that they would have regardless of us. In fact, I believe strongly that it is part of Microsoft becoming more open and adapting itself to the multitude of shifts in this industry (open sourcing IronPython, IronRuby, the DLR, the JS library for ASP.NET, the MS-PL, the MS-RL, opening up their code, and so on)….Now, regardless of the strategic discussion about endorsing Silverlight, there are technicalities about Silverlight that make it a fascinating platform. I personally want to write cross platform web applications using C#, Boo, Python and Ruby. And that matters to me, and matters to others. And I have loved Silverlight since it embedded the CLR runtime. Nothing new there, you can read the gory details of my fascination from back then…What prevents anyone from taking the Moonlight source code, embracing it, extending it, innovate with it, prototype with it, and enter the same cycle that Linux, or web browsers have entered? Or someone turning it into a standard? Nothing. The only thing preventing it is lack of imagination. « )

http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Mono (« Sugar activities are usually written in Python using the Python Activity API. This page documents how it is possible to use Mono to write a Sugar activity. With Mono, you can use any underlying language like C# or Boo. »)

http://tquerci.blogspot.com/2008/01/mono-on-olpc-one-laptop-per-child.html (« After a lot of time I’m finally releasing the first version of Sugar assembly to « sugarize » a Mono application. This assembly is needed to integrate a Mono application with the Sugar environment so it can run on an OLPC device. This version allows creating applications that use GTK# forms created programmatically or by a Glade resource fileI have ported two applications to the OLPC device: GBrainy and MonkeysMemory. The first application is an interesting application to « improve » your brain, while the second one is a simple « Memory » game that I wrote to play with my children.« )

http://www.mono-project.com/Software

http://www.mono-project.com/Libraries

GRAPHIQUES

  • Gtk# (« This toolkit is a .NET binding for the Gtk+ toolkit. It is in active development, and there are various applications in the Mono world that use it (Monodoc, Monocov, Mono’s Debugger and various smaller applications, a more complete list is available on the Gtk# Wiki. Platforms: Unix, Windows, GPE, MacOS X (using the X server)« ).

Web Frameworks

CHARTING

  • NPlot (http://netcontrols.org/nplot/wiki/) is a free charting library for .NET and supports various kinds of graphic modes. It boasts an elegant and flexible API. NPlot includes controls for Windows.Forms, ASP.NET and a class for creating Bitmaps. A GTK# control is also available.
  • ZedGraph (http://zedgraph.org) ZedGraph is a set of classes, written in C#, for creating 2D line and bar graphs of arbitrary datasets. The classes provide a high degree of flexibility — almost every aspect of the graph can be user-modified. At the same time, usage of the classes is kept simple by providing default values for all of the graph attributes. The classes include code for choosing appropriate scale ranges and step sizes based on the range of data values being plotted.

SYSTEM PROGRAMMING

  • Mono.Addins is a generic framework for creating extensible applications, and for creating libraries which extend those applications. This framework is derived from the add-in engine used by MonoDevelop, although it has been completely rewritten and improved in many ways to make it more generic and easier to use. The MonoDevelop add-in engine was an improvement over the SharpDevelop engine, which took many ideas from the Eclipse add-in engine. Mono.Addins has been designed to be useful for a wide range of applications: from simple applications with small extensibility needs, to complex applications (such as MonoDevelop itself) which need support for large add-in structures.

http://www.mono-project.com/Moonlight («  Silverlight 1.1 (http://silverlight.net) is a new development technology for the Web created by Microsoft based on the CLR that augments it with a 2D retained graphics system and media playback engine and ships a subset of the standard .NET libraries. Currently the Moonlight project supports both Silverlight 1.0 (canvas + browser-based scripting) as well as 1.1 applications (canvas + ECMA CLI powered execution engine). Building an open source implementation on top of Mono is an obvious choice as Mono has most of the technologies required to implement it but is missing a few components. In this page we will track the work required and the design decisions involved in creating an open source version of itCurrently Moonlight is not packaged as it is still under heavy development. In the future we will provide package repositories for all major distributions through the OpenSUSE Build Service (http://build.opensuse.org) as well as a Mozilla extension that will make the installation experience similar to the one that Windows and MacOS users have today. « )

Une Réponse to “Mono : C#, IKVM, Java, Ironpython, Boo, OLPC, Silverlight/Moonlight, etc…”

  1. Lavoux said

    si je peux me permetre puisque j’en ai l’ocxcasion, ton blog est un vrai bijoux🙂

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